Release 24.0 (unreleased)

New Features in 24.0

  • When invoking tests with pytest, the --log-(cli|file)-(level|format) command line arguments and their corresponding pytest.ini configure options are now respected (making it possible to have different format and logging levels in the log file than then console).

  • A new log level called CONSOLE has been added between the default INFO and DEBUG levels. This level will show all reads and writes made to the serial console during testing.

  • The QEMUDriver now has an additional disk_opts property which can be used to pass additional options for the disk directly to QEMU

  • labgrid-client now has a write-files subcommand to copy files onto mass storage devices.

Bug fixes in 24.0

  • The pypi release now uses the labgrid pyserial fork in the form of the pyserial-labgrid package. This fixes installation with newer versions of pip.

  • Several tests have gained an importorskip() call to skip them if the module is not available.

  • The build-and-release workflow supports building wheels.

  • The markers now are restricted to patterns which won’t match WARN, ERROR, INFO and similar log notifiers.

  • Fix named SSH lookups in conjunction with an environment file in labgrid-client.

  • Fix sftp option issue in SSH driver that caused sftp to only work once per test run.

  • ManagedFile NFS detection heuristic now does symlink resolution on the local host.

  • The password for the ShellDriver can now be an empty string.

Breaking changes in 24.0

  • Support for the legacy ticket authentication was dropped: If the coordinator logs ModuleNotFoundError on startup, switch the crossbar config to anonymous authentication (see .crossbar/config-anonymous.yaml for an example).

  • The Debian package (debian/) no longer contains crossbar. Use the coordinator container or install it into a separate local venv as described in the documentation. If you see WARNING: Ticket authentication is deprecated. Please update your coordinator. on the client when running an updated coordinator, your coordinator configuration may set ticket instead of anonymous auth.

  • The StepReporter API has been changed. To start step reporting, you must now call StepReporter.start() instead of StepReporter(), and set up logging via labgrid.logging.basicConfig().

  • Logging output when running pytest is no longer sent to stderr by default, since this is both chatty and also unnecessary with the improved logging flexibility. It it recommended to use the --log-cli-level=INFO command line option, or log_cli_level = INFO option in pytest.ini, but if you want to restore the old behavior add the following to your file (note that doing so may affect the ability to use some more advanced logging features):

    def pytest_configure(config):
        import logging
        import sys
            format='%(levelname)8s: %(message)s',
  • The interpretation of the -v command line argument to pytest has changed slightly. -vv is now an alias for --log-cli-level=INFO (effectively unchanged), -vvv is an alias for --log-cli-level=CONSOLE, and -vvvv is an alias for --log-cli-level=DEBUG.

  • The BareboxDriver now remembers the log level, sets it to 0 on initial activation/reset and recovers it on boot(). During run()/run_check() the initially detected log level is used.

  • The NFSProviderDriver now returns mount and path information on stage() instead of the path to be used on the target. The previous return value did not fit the NFS mount use case.

  • The NFSProvider and RemoteNFSProvider resources no longer expect the internal and external arguments as they do not fit the NFS mount use case.

Known issues in 24.0

Release 23.0 (Released Apr 24, 2023)

New Features in 23.0

  • Python 3.6 support has been dropped.

  • Exporter config templates now have access to the following new variables: isolated (all resource accesses must be tunneled True/False), hostname (of the exporter host), name (of the exporter).

  • ModbusRTU driver for instruments

  • Support for Eaton ePDU and TP-Link power strips added, either can be used as a NetworkPowerPort.

  • The example strategies now wait for complete system startup using systemctl.

  • Consider a combination of multiple “lg_feature” markers instead of considering only the closest marker.

  • There is a new get_strategy helper function which returns the strategy of the target.

  • labgrid-client now supports an export command which exposes the resource information as environment variables.

  • Newer C920 webcams are now supported.

  • The pytestplugin now correctly combines feature markers instead of replacing them.

  • The ConsoleLoggingReporter is now exported for library usage.

  • The HD 2MP Webcam is now supported by the video-driver.

  • TP-Link power strips are supported by the NetworkPowerDriver.

  • A ModbusRTUResource and Driver has been added to control RS485 equipment.

  • The strategies within labgrid learned the force() function.

  • The labgrid client SSH command is now able to instantiate the SSHDriver when there are multiple NetworkService resources available.

  • eg_pms2_network power port driver supports controlling the Energenie power management series with devices like the EG_PMS2_LAN & EG_PMS2_WLAN.

  • The client and coordinator learned of a new “release-from” operation that only releases a place if it acquired by a specific user. This can be used to prevent race conditions when attempting to automate the cleanup of unused places (e.g. in CI jobs).

  • ModbusTCPCoil driver supports writing using multiple coils write method in order to make driver usable with Papouch Quido I/O modules.

  • If supported, ser2net started by the exporter now allows multiple connections.

  • SmallUBootDriver driver now supports wide range of Ralink/mt7621 devices which expects boot_secret without new line with new boot_secret_nolf boolean config option.

  • More USBVideo devices have been added.

  • labgrid now uses a custom yaml loader/dumper.

  • labgrid-client add-match/add-named-match check for duplicate matches

  • DFUDriver has been added to communicate with a DFUDevice, a device in DFU (Device Firmware Upgrade) mode.

  • labgrid-client dfu added to allow communication with devices in DFU mode.

  • Support for QEMU Q35 machine added.

  • UBootDriver now handles idle console, allowing driver activation on an interrupted U-Boot.

  • Support for the STLINK-V3 has been added to the USBDebugger resource.

  • labgrid-suggest can now suggest matches for a USBPowerPort used by power switchable USB hubs.

  • AndroidFastboot is now deprecated and was replaced by AndroidUSBFastboot. This is more consistent with the AndroidNetFastboot support.

  • In case multiple matches are found for a driver, labgrid-client now outputs the available names.

  • ProcessWrapper now supports an “input” argument to check_output() that allows a string to be passed to stdin of the process.

  • The NetworkInterfaceDriver now supports local and remote SSH port forwarding to/from the exporter.

  • labgrid was switched over to use pyproject.toml.

  • A contrib script was added to export coordinator metrics to stasd.

  • The SSH connection timeout can now be globally controlled using the LG_SSH_CONNECT_TIMEOUT environment variable.

  • The QEMUDriver now supports a display option which can specify if an display device should be created. none (the default) will not create a display device, fb-headless will create a headless framebuffer device for software rendering, and egl-headless will create a headless GPU device for accelerated rendering (but requires host support).

  • The AndroidFastbootDriver now supports interaction with network devices in fastboot state.

  • Add bash completion for labgrid-client.

  • The QEMUDriver now support a nic property that can be used to create a network interface when booting.

  • The SSHDriver now correctly uses the processwrapper for rsync.

  • The QEMUDriver now supports API to add port-forwarding from localhost.

  • The get() method for sdwire has been added.

  • If there are multiple named resources for a target, one of them can be named “default” to select it automatically if no explicit other name is given.

  • labgrid-client has been extended with –name/-n for most commands. This allows attaching multiple power sources/usb-muxes and switching them individually from the command line.

  • Add DediprogFlashDriver and DediprogFlasher resource.

  • Add support for Digital Loggers PDU.

  • Add support for Shelly power switches.

  • Make labgrid-client use crossbar_url and crossbar_realm from ennvironment config.

Bug fixes in 23.0

  • The exporter now exports sysfsgpios during place acquire/release, fixing a race in the sysfspgio agent interface.

  • Fixed a bug where using labgrid-client io get always returned low when reading a sysfsgpio.

  • Fix labgrid-client exit code on keyboard interrupt.

  • Fixed labgrid-client forward --remote/-R, which used either the LOCAL part of --local/-L accidentally (if specified) or raised an UnboundLocalError.

  • Fix udev matching by attributes.

  • Stop Exporter’s event loop when register calls fail.

  • Fix exit codes for various subcommands.

  • Omit role and place output for labgrid-client reserve to fix shell evaluation.

Breaking changes in 23.0

  • Config’s get_option()/get_target_option() convert non-string options no longer to strings.

  • UBootDriver’s boot_expression attribute is deprecated, it will no longer check for the string during U-Boot boot. This allows activating the driver on an already running U-Boot.

  • The uuu command handling was fixed for the UUUDriver.

  • UBootDriver boot() method was fixed.

  • Fix proxying of dynamic port power backends with URL in host parameter and authentication credentials.

  • The coordinator was switched over to anonymous static authentication. You’ll have to use the legacy crossbar configuration to support older clients/exporters. The 23.1 release will remove support for the legacy ticket authentication.

  • AndroidFastboot has been deprecated. Please replace it with the more specific AndroidUSBFastboot with the same semantics.

Known issues in 23.0

Release 0.4.0 (Released Sep 22, 2021)

New Features in 0.4.0

  • Duplicate bindings for the same driver are now allowed (see the QEMUDriver)

  • The NetworkPowerDriver now additionally supports: - Siglent SPD3000X series power supplies

  • Labgrid client lock now enforces that all matches need to be fulfilled.

  • Support for USB HID relays has been added.

  • UBootDriver now allows overriding of currently fixed await boot timeout via new boot_timeout argument.

  • With --lg-colored-steps, two new dark and light color schemes which only use the standard 8 ANSI colors can be set in LG_COLOR_SCHEME. The existing color schemes have been renamed to dark-256color and light-256color. Also, the ColoredStepReporter now tries to autodetect whether the terminal supports 8 or 256 colors, and defaults to the respective dark variant. The 256-color schemes now use purple instead of green for the run lines to make them easier distinguishable from pytest’s “PASSED” output.

  • Network controlled relay providing GET/PUT based REST API

  • The QEMUDriver gains support for -bios and qcow2 images.

  • Support for audio input has been added.

  • Usage of sshpass for SSH password input has been replaced with the SSH_ASKPASS environment variable.

  • Labgrid supports the Linux Automation GmBH USB Mux now.

  • NetworkManager control support on the exporter has been added. This allows control of bluetooth and wifi connected to the exporter.

  • TFTP-/NFS-/HTTPProvider has been added, allowing easy staging of files for the DUT to later retrieve.

  • Improved LG_PROXY documentation in docs/usage.rst.

  • Exporter now checks /usr/sbin/ser2net for SerialPortExport

  • Support for Tasmota-flashed power outlets controlled via MQTT has been added.

  • The OpenOCDDriver has been reworked with new options and better output.

  • A script to synchronize places to an external description was added.

  • ShellDriver has regained the support to retrieve the active interface and IP addresses.

  • Labgrid has gained support for HTTP Video streams.

  • A settle time for the ShellDriver has been added to wait for chatty systems to settle before interacting with the shell.

  • Support for Macrosilicon HDMI to USB (MJPEG) adapters was added.

  • Console logfiles can now be created by the labgrid client command.

  • A ManualSwitchDriver has been added to prompt the user to flip a switch or set a jumper.

  • AndroidFastbootDriver now supports booting/flashing images preconfigured in the environment configuration.

Bug fixes in 0.4.0

  • pytest --lg-log foobar now creates the folder foobar before trying to write the log into it, and error handling was improved so that all possible errors that can occur when opening the log file are reported to stderr.

  • gstreamer log messages are now suppressed when using labgrid-client video.

  • Travis CI has been dropped for Github Actions.

Breaking changes in 0.4.0

  • EthernetInterface has been renamed to NetworkInterface.

Known issues in 0.4.0

  • Some client commands return 0 even if the command failed.

  • Currently empty passwords are not well supported by the ShellDriver

Release 0.3.0 (released Jan 22, 2021)

New Features in 0.3.0

  • All CommandProtocol drivers support the poll_until_success method.

  • The new FileDigitalOutputDriver represents a digital signal with a file.

  • The new GpioDigitalOutputDriver controls the state of a GPIO via the sysfs interface.

  • Crossbar and autobahn have been updated to 19.3.3 and 19.3.5 respectively.

  • The InfoDriver was removed. The functions have been integrated into the labgridhelper library, please use the library for the old functionality.

  • labgrid-client write-image subcommand: labgrid client now has a write-image command to write images onto block devices.

  • labgrid-client ssh now also uses port from NetworkService resource if available

  • The PLACE and STATE variables used by labgrid-client are replaced by LG_PLACE and LG_STATE, the old variables are still supported for the time being.

  • The SSHDriver’s keyfile attribute is now specified relative to the config file just like the images are.

  • The ShellDriver’s keyfile attribute is now specified relative to the config file just like the images are.

  • labgrid-client -P <PROXY> and the LG_PROXY environment variable can be used to access the coordinator and network resources via that SSH proxy host. Drivers which run commands via SSH to the exporter still connect directly, allowing custom configuration in the user’s .ssh/config as needed. Note that not all drivers have been updated to use the ProxyManager yet.

  • Deditec RELAIS8 devices are now supported by the DeditecRelaisDriver.

  • The RKUSBDriver was added to support the rockchip serial download mode.

  • The USBStorageDriver gained support for BMAP.

  • Flashrom support added, by hard-wiring e.g. an exporter to the DUT, the ROM on the DUT can be written directly. The flashrom driver implements the bootstrap protocol.

  • AndroidFastbootDriver now supports ‘getvar’ and ‘oem getenv’ subcommands.

  • The coordinator now updates the resource acquired state at the exporter. Accordingly, the exporter now starts ser2net only when a resources is acquired. Furthermore, resource conflicts between places are now detected.

  • Labgrid now uses the ProcessWrapper for externally called processes. This should include output from these calls better inside the test runs.

  • The binding dictionary can now supports type name strings in addition to the types themselves, avoiding the need to import a specific protocol or driver in some cases.

  • The remote infrastructure gained support for place reservations, for further information check the section in the documentation.

  • The SigrokDriver gained support for the Manson HCS-2302, it allows enabling and disabling channels, measurement and setting the current and voltage limit.

  • labgrid-client write-image gained new arguments: --partition, --skip, --seek.

  • Support for Sentry PDUs has been added.

  • Strategies now implement a force method, to force a strategy state irrespective of the current state.

  • SSH Connections can now be proxied over the exporter, used by adding a device suffix to the NetworkService address.

  • UBootDriver now allows overriding of default boot command (run bootcmd) via new boot_command argument.

  • The config file supports per-target options, in addition to global options.

  • Add power driver to support GEMBIRD SiS-PM implementing SiSPMPowerDriver.

  • A cleanup of the cleanup functions was performed, labgrid should now clean up after itself and throws an error if the user needs to handle it himself.

  • labgrid-client now respects the LG_HOSTNAME and LG_USERNAME environment variables to set the hostname and username when accessing resources.

  • PyVISA support added, allowing to use PyVISA controlled test equipment from Labgrid.

  • labgrid-client write-image gained a new argument --mode to specify which tool should be used to write the image (either dd or bmaptool)

  • Exporter configuration file exporter.yaml now allows use of environment variables.

Breaking changes in 0.3.0

  • ManagedFile now saves the files in a different directory on the exporter. Previously /tmp was used, labgrid now uses /var/cache/labgrid. A tmpfiles example configuration for systemd is provided in the /contrib directory. It is also highly recommended to enable fs.protected_regular=1 and fs.protected_fifos=1 for kernels>=4.19. This requires user intervention after the upgrade to create the directory and setup the cleanup job.

  • @attr.s(cmp=False) is deprecated and all classes have been moved to @attr.s(eq=False), this release requires attrs version 19.2.0

  • Coordinator work dir is now set to the same dir as the crossbar configuration dir. Hence coordinator specific files like places.yaml and resources.yaml are now also stored in the crossbar configuration folder. Previously it would use ...

  • The HawkbitTestClient and USBStick classes have been removed

  • The original USBStorageDriver was removed, NetworkUSBStorageDriver was renamed to USBStorageDriver. A deprecated NetworkUSBStorageDriver exists temporarily for compatibility reasons.

Known issues in 0.3.0

  • There are several reports of sshpass used within the SSHDriver not working in call cases or only on the first connection.

  • Some client commands return 0 even if the command failed.

  • Currently empty passwords are not well supported by the ShellDriver

Release 0.2.0 (released Jan 4, 2019)

New Features in 0.2.0

  • A colored StepReporter was added and can be used with pytest --lg-colored-steps.

  • labgrid-client can now use the last changed information to sort listed resources and places.

  • labgrid-client ssh now uses ip/user/password from NetworkService resource if available

  • The pytest plugin option --lg-log enables logging of the serial traffic into a file (see below).

  • The environement files can contain feature flags which can be used to control which tests are run in pytest.

  • LG_* variables from the OS environment can be used in the config file with the !template directive.

  • The new “managed file” support takes a local file and synchronizes it to a resource on a remote host. If the resource is not a NetworkResource, the local file is used instead.

  • ProxyManager: a class to automatically create ssh forwardings to proxy connections over the exporter

  • SSHManager: a global manager to multiplex connections to different exporters

  • The target now saves it’s attached drivers, resources and protocols in a lookup table, avoiding the need of importing many Drivers and Protocols (see Syntactic sugar for Targets)

  • When multiple Drivers implement the same Protocol, the best one can be selected using a priority (see below).

  • The new subcommand labgrid-client monitor shows resource or places changes as they happen, which is useful during development or debugging.

  • The environment yaml file can now list Python files (under the ‘imports’ key). They are imported before constructing the Targets, which simplifies using custom Resources, Drivers or Strategies.

  • The pytest plugin now stores metadata about the environment yaml file in the junit XML output.

  • The labgrid-client tool now understands a --state option to transition to the provided state using a Strategy. This requires an environment yaml file with a RemotePlace Resources and matching Drivers.

  • Resource matches for places configured in the coordinator can now have a name, allowing multiple resources with the same class.

  • The new Target.__getitem__ method makes writing using protocols less verbose.

  • Experimental: The labgrid-autoinstall tool was added (see below).

New and Updated Drivers

  • The new DigitalOutputResetDriver adapts a driver implementing the DigitalOutputProtocol to the ResetProtocol.

  • The new ModbusCoilDriver support outputs on a ModbusTCP device.

  • The new NetworkUSBStorageDriver allows writing to remote USB storage devices (such as SD cards or memory sticks connected to a mux).

  • The new QEMUDriver runs a system image in QEmu and implements the ConsoleProtocol and PowerProtocol. This allows using labgrid without any real hardware.

  • The new QuartusHPSDriver controls the “Quartus Prime Programmer and Tools” to flash a target’s QSPI.

  • The new SerialPortDigitalOutputDriver controls the state of a GPIO using the control lines of a serial port.

  • The new SigrokDriver uses a (local or remote) device supported by sigrok to record samples.

  • The new SmallUBootDriver supports the extremely limited U-Boot found in cheap WiFi routers.

  • The new USBSDMuxDriver controls a Pengutronix USB-SD-Mux device.

  • The new USBTMCDriver can fetch measurements and screenshots from the “Keysight DSOX2000 series” and the “Tektronix TDS 2000 series”.

  • The new USBVideoDriver can stream video from a remote H.264 UVC (USB Video Class) camera using gstreamer over SSH. Currently, configuration for the “Logitech HD Pro Webcam C920” exists.

  • The new XenaDriver allows interacting with Xena network testing equipment.

  • The new YKUSHPowerDriver and USBPowerDriver support software-controlled USB hubs.

  • The bootloader drivers now have a reset method.

  • The BareboxDriver’s boot string is now configurable, which allows it to work with the quiet Linux boot parameter.

  • The IMXUSBLoader now recognizes more USB IDs.

  • The OpenOCDDriver is now more flexible with loading configuration files.

  • The NetworkPowerDriver now additionally supports:

    • 24 port “Gude Expert Power Control 8080”

    • 8 port “Gude Expert Power Control 8316”

    • NETIO 4 models (via telnet)

    • a simple REST interface

  • The SerialDriver now supports using plain TCP instead of RFC 2217, which is needed from some console servers.

  • The ShellDriver has been improved:

    • It supports configuring the various timeouts used during the login process.

    • It can use xmodem to transfer file from and to the target.

Incompatible Changes

  • When using the coordinator, it must be upgrade together with the clients because of the newly introduce match names.

  • Resources and Drivers now need to be created with an explicit name parameter. It can be None to keep the old behaviour. See below for details.

  • Classes derived from Resource or Driver now need to use @attr.s(cmp=False) instead of @attr.s because of a change in the attrs module version 17.1.0.

Syntactic sugar for Targets

Targets are now able to retrieve requested drivers, resources or protocols by name instead of by class. This allows removing many imports, e.g.

from labgrid.driver import ShellDriver

shell = target.get_driver(ShellDriver)


shell = target.get_driver("ShellDriver")

Also take a look at the examples, they have been ported to the new syntax as well.

Multiple Driver Instances

For some Protocols, it is useful to allow multiple instances.


A board may have two jumpers to control the boot mode in addition to a reset GPIO. Previously, it was not possible to use these on a single target.


Some boards have multiple console interfaces or expose a login prompt via a USB serial gadget.


In some cases, multiple power ports need to be controlled for one Target.

To support these use cases, Resources and Drivers must be created with a name parameter. When updating your code to this version, you can either simply set the name to None to keep the previous behaviour. Alternatively, pass a string as the name.


>>> t = Target("MyTarget")
>>> SerialPort(t)
SerialPort(target=Target(name='MyTarget', env=None), state=<BindingState.bound: 1>, avail=True, port=None, speed=115200)
>>> SerialDriver(t)
SerialDriver(target=Target(name='MyTarget', env=None), state=<BindingState.bound: 1>, txdelay=0.0)

New (with name=None):

>>> t = Target("MyTarget")
>>> SerialPort(t, None)
SerialPort(target=Target(name='MyTarget', env=None), name=None, state=<BindingState.bound: 1>, avail=True, port=None, speed=115200)
>>> SerialDriver(t, None)
SerialDriver(target=Target(name='MyTarget', env=None), name=None, state=<BindingState.bound: 1>, txdelay=0.0)

New (with real names):

>>> t = Target("MyTarget")
>>> SerialPort(t, "MyPort")
SerialPort(target=Target(name='MyTarget', env=None), name='MyPort', state=<BindingState.bound: 1>, avail=True, port=None, speed=115200)
>>> SerialDriver(t, "MyDriver")
SerialDriver(target=Target(name='MyTarget', env=None), name='MyDriver', state=<BindingState.bound: 1>, txdelay=0.0)


Each driver supports a priorities class variable. This allows drivers which implement the same protocol to add a priority option to each of their protocols. This way a NetworkPowerDriver can implement the ResetProtocol, but if another ResetProtocol driver with a higher protocol is available, it will be selected instead. See the documentation for details.

ConsoleLogging Reporter

The ConsoleLoggingReporter can be used with the pytest plugin or the library. It records the Data send from a DUT to the computer running labgrid. The logfile contains a header with the name of the device from the environment configuration and a timestamp.

When using the library, the reporter can be started with:

from labgrid.consoleloggingreporter import ConsoleLoggingReporter


where “.” is the output directory.

The pytest plugin accepts the --lg-log commandline option, either with or without an output path.

Auto-Installer Tool

To simplify using labgrid for provisioning several boards in parallel, the labgrid-autoinstall tool was added. It reads a YAML file defining several targets and a Python script to be run for each board. Interally, it spawns a child process for each target, which waits until a matching resource becomes available and then executes the script.

For example, this makes it simple to load a bootloader via the BootstrapProtocol, use the AndroidFastbootDriver to upload a kernel with initramfs and then write the target’s eMMC over a USB Mass Storage gadget.


labgrid-autoinstall is still experimental and no documentation has been written.

Contributions from: Ahmad Fatoum, Bastian Krause, Björn Lässig, Chris Fiege, Enrico Joerns, Esben Haabendal, Felix Lampe, Florian Scherf, Georg Hofmann, Jan Lübbe, Jan Remmet, Johannes Nau, Kasper Revsbech, Kjeld Flarup, Laurentiu Palcu, Oleksij Rempel, Roland Hieber, Rouven Czerwinski, Stanley Phoong Cheong Kwan, Steffen Trumtrar, Tobi Gschwendtner, Vincent Prince

Release 0.1.0 (released May 11, 2017)

This is the initial release of labgrid.